This article is about monetary coins. For the bibliographic metadata standard, see COinS. They are standardized in weight, and produced in large quantities at a mint in order to temple token coins trade.
They are most often issued by a government. Coins are usually metal or alloy, or sometimes made of synthetic materials. Coins made of valuable metal are stored in large quantities as bullion coins. Spade money from the Zhou Dynasty, circa 650-400 BC.
A Kuru punch-marked coin, circa 350-315 BC, one of the earliest example of coinage in India. This section needs additional citations for verification. The first coins were developed independently in Iron Age Anatolia and Archaic Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BC. Standardized Roman currency was used throughout the Roman Empire. 1793, and made entirely from copper.
Late Bronze Age metal ingots were given standard shapes, such as the shape of an “ox-hide”, suggesting that they represented standardized values. Coins were an evolution of “currency” systems of the Late Bronze Age, where standard-sized ingots, and tokens such as knife money, were used to store and transfer value. Electrum coin from Ephesus, 620-600 BC. The oldest Aegina Chelone coins depicted sea turtles and were minted c. The earliest coins are mostly associated with Iron Age Anatolia, especially with the kingdom of Lydia. The first Lydian coins were made of electrum, a naturally occurring alloy of silver and gold that was further alloyed with added silver and copper.
Ionia, Uncertain city 600-550 BCE, Hemiobol. It took some time before ancient coins were used for commerce and trade. Even the smallest-denomination electrum coins, perhaps worth about a day’s subsistence, would have been too valuable for buying a loaf of bread. A famous early electrum coin, the most ancient inscribed coin at present known, is from nearby Caria.
Alternatively, Phanes may have been the Halicarnassian mercenary of Amasis mentioned by Herodotus, who escaped to the court of Cambyses, and became his guide in the invasion of Egypt in 527 or 525 BC. Set of three Roman aurei depicting the rulers of the Flavian dynasty. Top to bottom: Vespasian, Titus and Domitian. Coins were minted in the Achaemenid Empire, including the gold darics and silver sigloi. With the Achemenid conquest of Gandhara under Darius the Great c. In China, early round coins appeared in the 4th century BC.
The first Roman coins, which were crude, heavy cast bronzes, were issued c. Reverse of a silver Tetradrachm from Athens, c. Bronze coin issued by Antiochus IV Epiphanes, 2nd century BC. Coin edges are curled to prevent swindlers from stealing metal by scraping the edges. A bronze coin of the Chinese Han Dynasty, c. The Piloncitos are tiny engraved gold coins found in the Philippines, along with the barter rings, which are gold ring-like ingots.