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Booms and Bitner () had modified and expanded the traditional. marketing mix elements from 4Ps to become 7Ps by adding another three new Ps. Booms and bitner pdf Booms and bitner pdfBooms and bitner pdf Booms and bitner pdf DOWNLOAD! DIRECT. ABSTRACT. The purposes of this research are: (a) to investigate the generalisability of Boom and Bitner’s () services. Marketing Mix.

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After reading you will understand the basics of this powerful marketing tool. More and more organizations are competing one another strategically to distinguish themselves in the area of service and quality within a market. Successful organizations strongly focus on the service paradigm with investment in people, technology, personnel policy and remuneration systems for their employees.

This is very important as the behaviour of the employees can have a direct influence on the quality of the service. Employees represent the face and the voice of their organization to the customers.

They translate the services provision into services for the customer across all sectors. Inusing the above mentioned information, Bernard H. Booms and Mary J. Bitner further developed the traditional marketing mix developed by the American Professor of Boomw Jerome McCarthy into the extended marketing mix or services marketing mix.

While Jerome McCarthy has only defined four verifiable marketing elements, the 7Ps are an extension as a result of which this services marketing mix can also be applied in service companies and knowledge intensive boms.

The four basic elements from the concept marketing mix that have been devised by the American marketing professor Jerome McCarthy are:. This element is an object or service an organization produces on a large scale in a specific volume of units.

An example of a material product is the disposable razor. This is the price the customer pays for a service or product. The price is the most important factor for marketing.

The price of a product or service is determined by all factors that an organization invests during the preparation of the product. For instance material costs, market share, product identity etc. The price 9181 a product may go up or go down depending on time and the price of a certain product may vary because of market developments. This element represents the location where the product is available for the customers.

It is possible that the product is not available in all locations but only in a certain selection of locations.

Marketing mix

This element comprises all the efforts the company or organization makes to stimulate the popularity of their product in the market, for instance by advertising, promotional programmes, etc. The 7 Ps bitnef, also known as the services marketing mix, goes beyond the four basic marketing principles for product marketing.

Services have unique characteristics, for example intangibility, heterogeneity, inseparability and perish-ability. People, Process and Physical Evidence, that make the services marketing mix. In this service marketing mix approach was seen as very valuable and it provided new insights bioms a result of which the extension gained widespread acceptance in the science of services marketing.


These added elements within the service marketing mix represent a service and provide intangibility by physical evidence, biner result. Below the new elements are briefly explained one by one. These are mainly customer contact employees contact centre employees, representatives, account managers, etc. It is mainly the customer contact employees who are the face of the organization and they translate the quality into a service.

They include for instance stylists, hair dressers, coaches, trainers, gardeners, lawyers, contact centre employees, etc. They deliver a an service with a visible result.

Service companies are thoroughly aware that they must effectively manage the customer contact employees in order to monitor the quality of the service with respect to attitudes and behaviour.

This is very important in service companies because there might be a large variable in the performance of the customer contact employees in relation to the results of the services delivered. The quality of a service between service companies and customers hospital intake, having a meal in a restaurant or accountancy or management consultancy services can vary very strongly in addition to other important factors.

The lack of homogeneity in services creates difficulties for service companies. Delivery of services often occurs during an interaction between a customer and contact employees. Attitude and behaviour of an employee create a perception of the service as experienced by the customer customer perception. This perception may be either positive or negative.

The physical evidence within the service marketing mix boooms to an environment in which a service comes about from an interaction between an employee and bitnet customer which is combined with a tangible commodity.

Marketing Theories – The 7Ps of the Marketing Mix

The physical evidence includes a representation of a service for instance brochures, company stationery, business cards, reports, company website, etc. A good example is a hotel. The design, furnishing, lighting and decoration of a hotel as well as the appearance and the attitudes of the employees have a certain influence on the quality of the service and customer experience.

This service scape includes three physical environment dimensions that represent the relation between services and environment, namely:.

As services are intangible, customers are continuously looking for concrete clues to help them understand the nature of the service company. The more intangible the service the more important it is to make the service around it tangible. Credit cards are a good example of tangible proof compared to the provision of intangible credit facilities by credit card companies and banks.

In conclusion, the physical evidence serves as a visual metaphor of what the company represents, what services it facilitates and the relations between customers and employees. Another important point for consideration: Satisfied customers are the best publicity for the services or products binter be delivered. The marketing strategy must be effective, in which satisfaction of existing customers can be communicated to potential customers. Social marketing is a useful tool in this respect.

It is not tangible hitner it supplies physical evidence with the aid of for instance a written recommendation by a customer or user.

As services are results of actions for or with customers, a process involves a sequence of steps and activities to get there.


This element comprises all activities and boooms in which the people involved play an important role. As a service is made up of a chain of activities, it is important to take the possible waiting period between the activities into consideration. That is why it is important that marketeers take care of the communication about possible delivery times and by doing so the management of customer expectations.

Creating and managing effective service processes are for the existence of service companies. Managing the process factor is mainly due to the perish-ability of services which means that the services cannot be inventoried, stored for reuse or bitjer.

For instance, airline seats that are not booked cannot be reclaimed. It is therefore important that the service companies manage demand as well as they possibly can. The delivery system and the flexibility of the employees are two other key factors biter the successful delivery of a service. This process-based method provides a better management of the service in the area of internal and external interaction, makes this transparent and ultimately this is implemented in practice.

In short, the unique 3 Ps that are part of the service marketing mix: People, Physical Evidence and Process determine the success and the existence of a service company. They influence the buying needs, customer satisfaction and customer experience. Within the service companies quality and feedback are always at the top of the list so that they can serve their customers well, retain them and improve the necessary service processes and service scape.

What do you think? Do you recognize the practical explanation or do you have more suggestions? What are your success factors for a good Service Marketing Strategy? If you liked this article, then please subscribe to our Free Newsletter for the latest posts on Management models and methods.

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Your bbitner is more than welcome or share this article via Social media! Very well executed article and nicely elaborated with simply words so the wider viewers can refer and understand.

Helped me a great deal, to complete my assignment. The article is of great value, in the boomss industry, sales staff do not always take into account time delays for raw material and manufacturing time, when committing on delivery dates. Save andd name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Always up-to-date with our latest practical posts and updates? As a Newbie, I am continuously browsing online for articles that can help me.

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