Describe The Main Features Of The Permanent Settlement
by St.Xavier Tuition Classes
Introduction to the Permanent Settlement
The Permanent Settlement was a land revenue system implemented by the British East India Company in 1793 in the Bengal Presidency of British India. It was the first modern and scientific land revenue system in India and was based on the principles of equity and justice. It was designed to bring stability to the revenue system of Bengal and provide a reliable source of income to the Company. The main features of the Permanent Settlement were a fixed amount of tax, fixed tenure, and a single assessment system.
Fixed Revenue and Tenure
The main feature of the Permanent Settlement was the fixing of a revenue amount that was to be paid by the zamindars (landowners) to the Company for each village. This amount was fixed for a period of time, usually twelve years, and was not to be changed. The amount of revenue was calculated on the basis of the estimated produce of the land, with the zamindar receiving a fixed percentage of the produce as his share. The revenue was to be collected in cash, and was to be paid in advance at the beginning of the year.
Single Assessment System
The Permanent Settlement also established a single assessment system, whereby the revenue was to be assessed and collected by the Company itself, rather than by the zamindar or other representatives. This was to ensure that the revenue was collected in a fair and equitable manner, and that the zamindars were not able to take advantage of the system.
Encouragement of Private Ownership
The Permanent Settlement also encouraged private ownership of land by allowing zamindars to transfer their rights and obligations to another person. This allowed zamindars to sell their lands to other individuals, which in turn encouraged private ownership and investment in land.
Permanent Settlement and the Zamindars
The Permanent Settlement also established certain rights and obligations for the zamindars. They were to be responsible for maintaining law and order in the villages, and they were also responsible for collecting and remitting the revenue to the Company. In return, the zamindars were given the right to enjoy the revenue from the land, as well as the right to transfer their rights and obligations to another person.
Enclosure of Wastelands
The Permanent Settlement also encouraged the enclosure of wastelands, which was seen as a way of increasing agricultural productivity and improving the economic condition of the villagers. This was done by allowing the zamindars to enclose the wastelands and cultivate them, thereby increasing the productivity of the land.
The Permanent Settlement was a major milestone in the history of British India, as it was the first modern and scientific land revenue system in India. It established a fixed revenue system, a single assessment system, and encouraged private ownership of land. It also encouraged the enclosure of wastelands and the improvement of agricultural productivity. The Permanent Settlement brought stability to the revenue system of Bengal and provided a reliable source of income to the Company.