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Application, Marketing and Engineering. Computational and Structural Biotechnology Journal. Enzymes are protein molecules functioning as specialized catalysts for chemical reactions.
They have contributed greatly to the traditional and modern chemical industry by improving existing processes. In this article, we first give a survey of representative industrial applications of enzymes, focusing on the technical applications, feed industry, food processing and cosmetic products. The recent important developments and applications of enzymes in industry are reviewed. Then large efforts are dedicated to the worldwide enzyme market from the demand and production perspectives.
Special attention is laid on the Chinese enzyme market. Although enzyme applications are being developed in full swing, breakthroughs are needed to overcome their weaknesses in maintaining activities during the catalytic processes. Strategies of metagomic analysis, cell surface display technology and cell-free system might give valuable solutions in novel enzyme exploiting and enzyme engineering.
Enzymes are natural catalysts. They are produced by living organisms to increase the rate of an immense and diverse set of chemical reactions required for life.
They are involved in all processes essential for life such as DNA replication and transcription, protein synthesis, metabolism and signal transduction, etc.
And their ability to perform very specific chemical transformations has made them increasingly useful in industrial processes. Numerous reviews concerning different topics have been published, relating to strategies for enzyme engineering [ 12 ], biocatalyst in organic synthesis [ 3 ], biofuels production [ 4 ], and selected aspects of bioprocesses [ 5 ].
Representative processes of DSM, BASF, and Lonza have been discussed with respect to technological and economical perspectives of industrial enzyme applications [ 6 ].
In the following, this review would focus on three points. First, attentions are given to the current status of representative enzyme applications in the field of the technical applications, feed industry, food processing and cosmetics, with the aim of understanding the enzyme impact on modern chemical industry.
Second, efforts are made to draw a simple and clear scenario about the industrial structure of global enzyme market. General environment of demand and supply of Chinese enzyme market is critically analyzed. To assess on a realistic and sound basis, large amounts of information has been collected from various sources including books, periodicals, patent literatures, company’s annual report, market research report and internet webpage.
Although enzyme preparations have been used by mankind over a long history, breakthroughs are needed to extend their uses in broader areas with more superior performance. Recent advancements in novel enzyme engineering are briefly introduced in the last part, especially for metagenomics, surface display techniques and cell free systems. Enzymes are applied in various fields, including technical use, food manufacturing, animal nutrition, cosmetics, medication, and as tools for research and development.
At present, almost enzymes are known, and of these, approximately microbial original types are used commercially. However, only about 20 enzymes are produced on truly industrial scale. With the improved understanding of the enzyme production biochemistry, fermentation processes, and recovery methods, an increasing number of industrial enzymes can be foreseeable. The world enzyme demand is satisfied by about 12 major producers and minor suppliers.
The market is highly competitive, has small profit margins and is technologically intensive. Table 1 gives the representative examples of enzyme applications based on different industrial sectors, and discusses the technical benefits in various fields. According to a research report from Austrian Federal Environment Agency [ 7 ], about enzymes were used in food industry, 64 enzymes in technical application and 57 enzymes in feedstuff, of which 24 enzymes are used in three industrial sectors.
Enzyme applications based on fields [ 138 — 11 ]. Technical enzymes are typically used as bulk enzymes in detergents, textile, pulp and paper industries, organic synthesis and biofuels industry. It is estimated that the technical enzymes market will increase at a 6. Commercially available enzymes used in these areas are amylases, proteases, lipases, cellulases, xylanases and catalases, etc.
But there seemed to be no great progress in essence and it needs some huge technological advances. In recent years the importance of lipases as industrial catalysts has grown steadily. It is well recognized that lipases have broad range of substrates, high regio- chemo- and enantioselectivity and relatively high stability in organic solvents [ 16 ]. These outstanding characteristics pave the way for their exploitation in organic synthesis: However, the use of lipases and of most enzymes in industrial processes is still limited by their low stability under operational conditions and low activity or specificity on particular or non-natural substrates.
Two approaches are considered as the way to solve the problems: Several successful cases can be cited, such as the enhancement of the activity and enantioselectivity of Candida Antarctica A lipase toward a difficult substrate ibuprofen ester by combinatorial reshaping of the substrate binding pocket [ 18 ].
Cellulases are widely used in textile applications for many years, and again received additional consideration in the enzyme market owing to their powerful ability in the degradation of lignocellulosic feedstocks. The cost of cellulases is a significant technical barrier to the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to fuels associated with commercializing processes[ 4 ].
Enzyme Technologies: Metagenomics, Evolution, Biocatalysis and Biosynthesis
Many companies have devoted themselves to developing new cellulase preparations by using genetic techniques and have streamlined production of those enzymes. The new enzyme product has been claimed to be 1. The use of enzymes in animal nutrition has an important role in current farming systems [ 22 ]. Feed enzymes can increase the digestibility of nutrients, leading to greater efficiency in feed utilization.
Also they can degrade unacceptable components in feed, which are otherwise harmful or of little or no value. Another benefit is positive impact on the environment by allowing better use of natural resources and reducing on faecal nutrient level applied to land.
For example, diets based on cereals such as barley, rye and wheat are higher in non-starch polysaccharides NSPswhich can decrease the intestinal methane production when supplemented with NSP enzymes. Furthermore, proteases can substantially reduce the amount of non-protein nitrogen supplement biocatalyss diets of animals, thereby reducing the excretion of urea into the environment.
Currently, feed enzymes available commercially by catalytic types are: Though research interest into the potential value of feed enzymes has occurred in the field of aqua-culture and ruminant nutrition, commercially viable versions have not been produced[ 24 ]. Additionally, development of heat stable, improved specific activity and some new NSP enzymes, and rapid, economical and reliable assays for mftagenomics enzyme activity has always been the focus and been intensified recently [ 22 ].
The global market for feed enzymes is definitely one promising segment in the enzyme industry. The use of enzymes as feed additives is restricted in most countries by local regulatory authorities [ 26 ]. Applications may therefore vary from country to country. Though some of the geographies have attained saturation, the market for feed enzymes globally in broad terms, is growing on, e.
S, China and South — East Asia still hold a high growth potential. Today’s consumers demand higher levels mteagenomics quality in their foods in terms of natural flavor and taste not only in US and Europe, but also in the developing countries where consumption shifts away from staple sources of calories towards life enjoyment.
This trend triggered the need for the development of enzymes applications in food processing. A modest, expected decline of enzyme sales was seen in baking industry. While the concepts and need for the healthy foods promote the positive growth in the whole food enzyme market.
Food enzymes are mainly used in baking industry, fruit juice and cheese manufacturing, as well as wine making and brewing to improve their flavor, texture, digestibility, and nutritional value. In terms of enzyme regulations, enzymes used in food can be technoogies into food additives and processing aids.
Technology Prospecting on Enzymes: Application, Marketing and Engineering
Most food enzymes are considered as processing aids only a few are used as additives, such as lysozyme and invertase [ 7 ]. From a regulatory point of technologied, distinction between processing aids and additives is very important because the national regulatory context of enzymes differs significantly in different countries, even among the EU Member States.
But in general, the processing aids are used during the manufacturing process of foodstuff, and do not have a technological function demand in the final food. Enzymes used in food processing are typically sold as enzyme preparations, which contain not only the desired enzyme, but also metabolites from the production strain and several added substances such as stabilizers. All these materials are expected to be safe under the guidance of good manufacturing practice cGMP. The key item in evaluating enzyme preparations safety is the safety assessment of the production strain.
In order to increase the enzyme production level, modifications including protease-deficient and sporulation-deficient were introduced the wild-type host microorganisms [ 27 ]. Olempska-Beer [ 28 ] reviewed the microbial strains engineered for food enzyme production from a security point of view. Although interests in the use of enzymes in cosmetics have been continuous increased, past and present areas of related applications seem bicatalysis be few.
Biocatalyssis successful example is the use of superoxide rnzyme SOD to capture free radicals and prevent damage to skin caused by environmental pollution, bacteria and biocataysis harmful factors. It is proposed to use a combination of SOD and peroxidase as free radical scavengers to reduce UV-induced erythema in sunscreen cream [ 29 ].
This application is highly expected partially attributed to this move towards organic compounds in place of petrochemical-based ingredients, which is highlighted by the increasing use of organic products [ 30 ].
Besides that, peroxidase is also used to prevent cosmetic formulations from bacterial attack for it can consume the oxygen present in the contents.
Another example is proteases used in skin creams to clean and smoothen the skin by peeling off dead or damaged skin [ 31 ]. But there is a problem that it is difficult to stop the enzyme to eat the skin, which may cause skin irritations. More than patents were applied per year after These applications include catalase in skin protection [ 32 ], laccase in hair dye [ 33 ], lipase to prevent treat skin rash or diaper rash [ 34 ], endoglycosidase and papain in toothpaste and mouthwash to whiten teeth, remove plaque and odor-causing deposits on teeth and gum tissue [ 34 ], and vitamin precursor and fatty alcohol and some enzymes coupled with polymeric molecules [ 35 ].
In addition to all of the above, enzymes are also used in contact lens cleaners to remove protein films [ 36 ]. Larcabal [ 37 ] reported that although subtilisin A removed light deposits more effectively, papain was slightly better with medium deposits and more effective with heavy deposits than subtilisin A.
Gains will reflect a continued world economy rebound from the global financial crisis of As illustrated in Fig. Growth came mostly from baking enzymes and other smaller applications such as fat and oil processing. The fast growth over the past decade has also been seen in a wealth of other industries spanning from organic synthesis in pharmaceutical industry to diagnostics enzyme with expanded access to medical care in developing countries, and the advent of health care reform in the United States.
Meantime the detergent industry, once the largest sector in the global enzyme market, experienced a decline due in part to the pricing pressures from the main detergent manufactures after the turn of the century. Demand for cleaning enzymes was accelerated by as the product lines were reformulated with more-effective new enzymes launched continuously.
Bioenergy production enzyme demand was limited by the new legislative mandates for grain based ethanol. While the development of the second generation biofuels derived from cellulosic raw materials will be in favor of demand growth over a long time.
Chinese versus global enzyme market in Roughly estimated [ 39 ].
From a regional perspective, North America was, by far, the largest consumer of enzyme products followed by the second largest regional market of Western Europe. The developed regions adopted new enzyme technologies in industry applications at a torrid pace, as their companies invested in enzyme-related technologies to address environmental technoogies, improve productivity and increase product value. Nevertheless, North America and Western Europe will see the slower gains in enzyme consumption, restrained by the relatively mature markets.
In particular, the American subprime lending crisis and the European debt crisiswill have a negative effect on enzyme consumption. China was also the world’s second largest enzyme market inalthough the America led demand by a wide margin.