PDF | The preliminary phytochemical analysis of Ephedra alata indicated the presence of cardiac glycosides, reducing sugars, flavonoids. Descriptions and articles about the Ephedra, scientifically known as Ephedra alata in the Encyclopedia of Life. Includes Overview; Distribution; Ecology; Hab. Two new flavonol glucosides have been identified in Ephedra alata, namely, herbacetin 8-methyl ether 3-O- glucosideO-rutinoside and herbacetin.
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BoxJerusalem, Palestine. Ephedra is among Palestinian medicinal plants that are traditionally used in folkloric medicine for treating many diseases.
Ephedra alata – Wikipedia
Ephedra is known to have antibacterial and antioxidant effects. TFC however was highest in the following order: On the basis of these findings, it is concluded that Ephedra alata constitutes a natural source of potent antioxidants that may prevent many diseases and could be potentially used in food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical products.
Ephedra is a medicinal plant belonging to the Ephedraceae family. Ephedra alata grows widely in Palestine. It is used in traditional medicine to treat allergies, bronchial asthma, chills, colds, coughs, edema, fever, flu, headaches. It has been a natural source of alkaloids such as ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, and other related compounds Parsaeimehr et al.
In addition to alkaloids, Ephedra is a source of phenolic compounds and therefore possesses a high antioxidant capacity Eberhardt et al. Ephedra has been reported to contain various phenolic compounds, such as trans-cinnamic acid, catechin, syringin, epicatechin, symplocoside, kaempferol 3-O-rhamnoside 7-O-glucoside, isovitexin 2-O-rhamnoside, which contribute significantly to the antioxidant activity of the plant Amakura et al.
Phenolic compounds are also believed to play an essential role as a health protecting factor. Scientific evidence suggests that utilizing diets rich in antioxidants reduce the risk of chronic diseases including cancer and heart malfunction Prakash et al. The main characteristic of antioxidant compounds is their ability to scavenge free radicals such as peroxide, hydroperoxide or lipid peroxyl and thus inhibit the oxidative mechanisms that lead to degenerative diseases Prakash et al.
To date, the scientific literature does not report about the antioxidant activity and phenolic content or flavonoid content of any type of Ephedra plant from Palestine. Therefore, a study of the Palestinian Ephedra Alata constitutes a valuable addition to the available literature. Abundant literature dealing with total phenolic and flavonoids content as well as antioxidant activity came out of different countries including those of the Middle East.
Moreover, Dehkordi et al. The correlations between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content or total flavonoid content were investigated. Additionally, correlations between the various antioxidant assays were performed.
Ephedra alata plant was collected from the southern part of the West Bank, Palestine in February The plant species is properly authenticated by Professor Khalid Sawalha, the director of biodiversity research laboratory, Al-Quds University. The plant was air-dried in the dark at room temperature for five days, then milled to a powdered plant material, and then stored in fridge until extraction.
All chemicals and reagents were of analytical grade. Phenolic and flavonoids standards: Vanillic acid, Ferulic acid, Syringic acid, trans-cinnamic acid, Catechin, p-coumaric acid, Sinapic acid, 4-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid, Rutin hydrate, Caffeic acid, Quercetin, Gallic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, chlorogenic acid, Taxifolin, Luteolin 7-glucoside, Apigenin 7-glucoside, Luteolin, Quercetin 3-D-galactose were from Sigma.
Data acquisition and control were carried out dphedra Empower 3 chromatography data software Waters, Germany. The mobile phase is a mixture of 0. All the samples were filtered with a 0. The PDA wavelengths range was from nm.
The HPLC system was then equilibrated for 5 minutes with the initial mobile phase composition prior injecting the next sample. All the samples were filtered via 0. The chromatographic separation was achieved using the same HPLC linear gradient program using formic acid instead of acetic acid at a constant flow rate of 0. Purified nitrogen was used as source and exhaust gases. Freshly prepared FRAP reagent 3. Absorbance at nm was read with reference to a reagent blank containing dphedra water which was also incubated at 37 C for up to 1 hour instead of 4 min, which was the original time applied in FRAP assay.
The cupric ion reducing antioxidant capacity of the extracts was determined according to the method of Apak et al.
After 30 min, the absorbance was recorded at nm against the reagent blank. Standard curve was prepared using different concentrations of Trolox. DPPH assay is based on the measurement of the scavenging ability of antioxidants towards the stable DPPH radical, and the procedure was done according to Brand-Williams et al.
The mixture was vortexed for sec.
The change in the absorbance of the sample extract was ephera at nm for 30 min till the absorbance reached a steady state. The percentage inhibition of DPPH of the test sample and known solutions of Trolox were calculated by the following formula:. A modified procedure using ABTS 2, 2-azino-di- 3-ethylbenzothialozine-sulphonic acid as described by Pellegrini et al.
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After standing for 60 min at room temperature, absorbance was measured at nm. The determination of total flavonoids was performed according to the colorimetric assay of Kim et al. Distilled water 4 mL was added to 1 mL of the extract in a test tube. Test tubes were incubated at ambient temperature for 5 minutes, and then 2 mL of 1 M sodium hydroxide were added to the mixture. Immediately, the volume of reaction mixture was made to 10 mL with distilled water. The mixture was thoroughly mixed using test tube shaker and the absorbance of the pink color developed was determined at nm.
Three samples of Ephedra plant were independently analyzed and all of the determinations were carried out in triplicate. Pearson correlations were calculated to test the relation between individual quality indicators with each one of the other quality indices.
The results showed that Ephedra plant investigated in this study are richer with phenolic compounds As plant phenolics have multifunctional properties and can act as singlet oxygen quenchers and scavenge free radicals, the presence of substantial amounts of these compounds in Palestinian Ephedra promotes the latter as an important source of antioxidants which if properly consumed may reduce risk associated with degenerative diseases and provide health promoting advantage.
Results of a study of Ghasemi et al. The results of ferric chloride colorimetric test for determining flavonoids content are presented in Table 1. This can be attributed to the polarity of the extraction solvent and the flavonoids, where flavonoids need less polar solvent or higher amount of ethanol e. These results demonstrated that the Ephedra plant extracts are rich with flavonoids range: Comparing TFC of Ephedra plant analyzed in this study with Ephedra from other countries revealed that the Ephedra grown in Palestine is richer with flavonoids, for example according to the study of Harisaranraj et al.
Evaluation of AA is becoming increasingly relevant in the field of nutrition as it provides useful information with regard to health promoting and functional quality of raw materials whether they are fruits, vegetables, or medicinal plants Scalfi et al.
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This parameter accounts for the presence of efficient oxygen radical scavengers, such as phenolic compounds. The antioxidant activity of phenolics is mainly due to their redox properties, which make them acting as reducing agents, hydrogen donors, and singlet oxygen quenchers.
Aalata are two types of antioxidant assays ephhedra to evaluate the antioxidant activity of plant extracts. The first category ephevra the potential of plant extracts to reduce ions or oxidants to act as reducing agents like ferric ion, cupric ion. The main two assays of this antioxidant activity category are FRAP measures the reduction potential of ferric to ferrousionand CUPRAC measures the reduction of cupric to cuprous ion. The second category of antioxidant activity measures the ability of plant extracts to scavenge free radicals.
These assays are used because they are quick and simple to perform, and reaction is reproducible and linearly related to the molar concentration of the antioxidant s present.
The reducing properties are associated with the presence of compounds which exert their action by breaking the free radical chain by donating a hydrogen atom. It utilizes the copper II -neocuproine [Cu II -Nc] reagent as the chromogenic oxidizing agent and is based on the cupric reducing ability of reducing compounds to cuprous.
DPPH is a free radical compound and has been widely used to test the free radical scavenging ability of various samples Sakanaka et al. It is a stable free radical with a characteristic absorption at nm that was used to study ephecra radical-scavenging effects of extracts.
As antioxidants donate protons to this radical, the absorption decreases. The color changed from purple to yellow and the absorbance at wavelength nm decreased. DPPH assay is based on the ability of the stable free radical 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl to react with hydrogen donors including phenolics. The bleaching of DPPH solution increases linearly with increasing amount of extract in a given volume. Pearson correlation revealed that all antioxidant activities under study were highly and significantly correlated to TPC but were not correlated with TFC.
All antioxidant activities were also highly and significantly correlated with each other. To enrich the active ingredients present in Ephedra alatatwo extractions methods were adopted and the extract components were directly examined on HPLC-PDA at different wavelengths. The second technique however utilized sonication of the same weight of the herb stems using the same solvent volume for three hours.
Eighteen phenolic and flavonoid standards mixture were injected and separated simultaneously to identify the presence of any of these compounds in the crude extracts. Calibration curve of each individual standard was also prepared at three concentration levels namely 50, and ppm. It was noticed that extraction by sonication is much more efficient in comparison to typical infusion procedure Figure 1.
Figure 2 showed overlaid chromatograms of the three crude extracts at nm. This wavelength was selected since the main Epehdra alata peaks showed a maximum absorption close to it. The overlaid UV-Vis spectra of the main peaks are depicted at the right corner.
The overlaid UV-Vis spectra of the main peaks eluted later between minutes are depicted at the right corner. The overlaid UV-Vis spectra of the main peaks are depicted at the right corner of chromatogram B. However, almost all the main peaks shared maximum wavelengths of These types of compounds are very close to isomeric flavonoid glycosides.
The peak at Other major peaks appeared at retention of Ranged peaks from Another peak at a retention time of However, preparative HPLC collection of pure flavonoids from Ephedra plant along with NMR experiments would assist in the exact determination of their structure. The antioxidant activities, total phenolics content and total flavonoids content of Ephedra alata grown in Palestine were determined and presented.
The results showed that the Ephedra alata grown in Palestine is rich in antioxidants, phenolics and flavonoids. Their antioxidant activity is comparable or higher to that of Epheda of other countries. There is a correlation between antioxidant activities and total phenolic content but not with total flavonoids content. The four antioxidant activity assays were highly and significantly correlated with each other.