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The Hegira medieval Latin transliteration, also Arabic: The Hijrah is also often identified with the start of the Islamic calendarwhich was set to 19 April in the Julian calendar.
The first Hijrah is dated to   or Rajab September—October  when a group of Muslims counseled by Muhammad to escape persecution in Mecca arrived at the court of the Christian monarch Negus of the Ethiopian EmpireAshama ibn-Abjar. Muhammad himself did not join this emigration.
In that year, his followers fled Mecca’s leading tribe, the Qurayshwho sent emissaries to Ethiopia to bring them back to the Arabian Peninsula. However, the Negus refused to send them back.
In Mecca, at the pilgrimage season ofMuhammad met six men of the Banu Khazraj from Medina, propounded to them the doctrines of Islamand recited portions of the Quran. These twelve informed Muhammad of the beginning of gradual development of Islam in Medina, and took a formal pledge of allegiance at Muhammad’s hand, promising to accept him as a prophet, to worship none but one Godand to renounce certain sins such as theft, adultery, and murder.
This is known as the “First Pledge of al-Aqaba”. The next year, at the pilgrimage ofa delegation of around 75 Muslims of the Banu Aws and Khazraj from Medina came, and in addition to restating the formal promises, they also assured Muhammad of their full support and protection if the latter would migrate to their land. They invited him to come to Medina as an arbitrator to reconcile among the hostile tribes.
Hegira – Wikipedia
During the early seventh century, Medina was inhabited by two types of population: Jewish and pagan Arabs. The Arab pagans had two tribes — the Banu Aws and Khazraj. At that time, the Jews there had the upper hand with their large settlement and huge property.
It is because of this knowledge, taken together with their need for an adjudicator, that the six men who met Muhammad at the pilgrimage season of readily uru his message, lest the Jews should steal a march over them. According to Muslim tradition, after receiving divine direction to depart Mecca, Muhammad began taking preparation and informed Abu Bakr of his plan.
Hijrat e Madina awr Maqsad Baisat e Nabvi (S.A.W)
On the night of his departure, Muhammad’s house was besieged by men of the Quraysh who planned to kill him in the morning. At the time, Muhammad possessed various properties of the Quraysh given to him in trust; so he handed them over to ‘ Ali and directed him to return them to their owners, and asked him to lie down on his bed assuring him of God’s protection.
It is said that when Muhammad emerged from his house, he recited the ninth verse of surah Ya Sin of the Quran and threw a handful of dust at the direction of the besiegers, rendering the besiegers unable to see him. Next morning, the besiegers were frustrated to find Ali on Muhammad’s bed. Fooled and thwarted by Muhammad’s plan, they rummaged the city in search for him,  and some of them eventually reached the threshold of the cave, but success eluded them.
When the Quraysh came to know of Muhammad’s escape, they announced heavy reward for bringing Muhammad back to them, alive or dead. Unable to resist this temptation, pursuers scattered in all directions. After staying for three days, Muhammad and Abu Bakr resumed their journey and were pursued by Suraqa bin Malik.
But each time he neared Muhammad’s party, his horse stumbled and he finally abandoned his desire of capturing Muhammad. He stopped mqdina a place called Quba ‘, a place some miles from the main city, and established a mosque there.
After a four-day stay at Quba’, Muhammad along with Abu Bakr continued their migration to Medina, participated in their first Friday prayer on the way, and upon reaching the city, were greeted cordially by its people. Shamsi in their works. Fazlur Rehman has listed other dates for the arrival of Muhammad in Quba’ in his work, as proposed by modern scholars, ranging from 31 May to 22 November Annual celebration of the Hijrah has long been assigned to 1 Muharramthe first day of the Muslim year, causing many writers to confuse hijat first day of the year of the Hijrah with the Hijrah itself, erroneously stating that the Hijrah occurred on 1 Muharram AH 1  which would be 19 April in Fazlur Rehman Shaikh’s system or even the hypothetical Gregorian date from retro-calculating 26 Rabi’ I in AH 1 to 16 July not to be confused with Julian 16 Julythe retro-calculated start date for of the regular Hijri calendar system even though the hiijrat visit to Medina for Friday prayers actually occurred on 16 Rabi’ I i.
Thus it is important to remember that whenever the tabular Islamic calendar invented by Muslim astronomers is extended back in time it changes all these dates by about 88 days or three lunar months as the first day of the year during which the Hijrah occurred, 1 Muharram AH 1would be mistaken from Monday 19 April to Friday 16 July Muhammad’s followers suffered from poverty after fleeing persecution in Mecca and migrating with Muhammad to Medina.
Their Meccan persecutors seized their wealth and belongings left behind in Mecca. Beginning in Januarysome of the Muslims resorted to the tradition of raiding the Meccan caravans that traveled along the eastern coast of the Red Sea from Mecca to Syria. The tribal grouping was thus encouraged by the need to act as a unit.
This unity was based on the bond of kinship by blood. The survival of madiba was also partially dependent on raiding caravans or oases, thus they saw this as no crime. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Several terms redirect here. For other uses, see Hijrah disambiguation. Chronology of Prophetic Events.
Translated by Alfred Guillaume. The Hijrah in Western Historiography”. Pilgrimage, Migration and the Religious Imagination. University of California Press. Theology of Migration in the Abrahamic Religions. Islam, Christianity and the Mystic Journey: The Christian Literary Society for India.
Retrieved 19 January The Cambridge History of Islam. History of the Arabs. Stories of the Prophet: From Adam to Muhammad. Retrieved 4 February Biography of the Noble Prophet. Religion is Not madiina God: Retrieved from ” https: Hegira Shia days of remembrance Muhammad in Medina Islamic terminology.
Intermediate Part II Urdu Notes 2016-17 Chapter # 1 – Hijrat e Madina
Muhammad and his followers. Renaming Yathrib as “the City of the Prophet ” Medina ; Enmity between the Aus tribe and Khazraj tribes ended; Muhammad made political leader and united the new Muslims.
Wikisource has the text of the New International Encyclopedia article Hejira.