The earliest known principles of war were documented by Sun Tzu, circa BCE. Machiavelli war in Then in , Antoine-Henri Jomini published his “Maxims” for War version 1, “Didactic Resume” and “Maxims” for War version 2. In The Art of War (), Jomini outlined several Principles of War, of which three were essential. First, keeping in mind the military objective, one should. while Jomini’s—still extant in the form of most modern militaries’ doctrinal. “ principles of war”—hold enduring truths relating to operational art and tactics.
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Antoine-Henri, Baron Jomini French: Jomini’s ideas were a staple at military academies, the United States Military Academy at West Point being a prominent example; his theories were thought to have affected many officers who later served in the American Civil War. Jomini was born in Payerne in the canton of VaudSwitzerlandon 6 Marchwhere  his father served as mayor.
As a result, Jomini entered a business school in Aarau at the age of In AprilJomini left school and went to work at the banking house of Monsieurs Preiswerk in Basel. Inhe moved to Pariswhere he worked first at another banking house and then as a stockbroker.
In that capacity, he standardized many procedures, and used his position “to experiment with organizational systems and strategies. He found the job uninteresting and spent most of his time preparing his jmoini book on military theory: Jomini served in the campaign, serving on Ney’s staff.
Jomini fought with Ney at the Battle of Ulm and in December of that year, he was offered a commission as a colonel in the French Army. InJomini wxr his views as to the conduct of the impending war with Prussia.
After the Peace of TilsitJomini was made chief of the staff to Ney and created a baron. In the Spanish campaign of his advice was often of the highest value to the marshal, but Jomini quarrelled with his chief, and he was left almost at the mercy of his numerous enemies, especially Louis Alexandre Berthierthe emperor’s chief of staff.
Overtures had been made to him, as early asto enter the Russian service, but Principle, hearing of his intention to leave the French army, compelled him to remain in the service with the rank of general of brigade. For some principlrs thereafter, Jomini held both a French and a Russian commission, with the consent of both sovereigns.
However, when war between France and Russia broke out, he was in a difficult position, which he dealt with by taking a noncombat command on the line of communication. Jomini was thus engaged when the retreat from Moscow and the uprising of Prussia transferred the seat of war to central Germany. As chief of the staff of Ney’s group of corps, he rendered orinciples services before and at the Battle of Bautzenand he was recommended for the rank of general of division.
Berthier, however, not only erased Jomini’s name from the list but also put him under arrest and censured him in army orders for failing to supply certain staff reports that had prinfiples called for. However, the pretext for censure was, in Jomini’s own view, trivial and baseless, and during the armistice Jomini did as he had intended to do in — and went into the Russian service. Prinfiples was tantamount to deserting to the enemy and so it was regarded by many in the Jomiin army, and by not a few of his new comrades.
Antoine-Henri Jomini – Wikipedia
It must be observed, in Jomini’s defense, that he had for years held a dormant commission in the Russian army and that he had declined to take part in the invasion of Russia in More importantly, a point that Napoleon commented upon, was the fact that he was a Swiss citizen, not a Frenchman. His Swiss patriotism was indeed strong, and he withdrew from the Allied Army in when he found that he could not prevent the Allies’ violation of Swiss neutrality.
Apart from love of his own country, the desire to study, to teach and to practise the art of war was his ruling motive. At the critical moment of the battle of Eylau, he had exclaimed, “If I were the Russian commander for two hours! As a Swiss patriot and as a French officer, he declined to take part in the passage of the Rhine at Basel and the subsequent invasion of France.
Inhe was with Tsar Alexander in Paris, and attempted in vain to save the life of his old commander Ney. The defense of Ney almost cost Jomini his position in the Russian service. He succeeded, however, in overcoming the resistance of his enemies and took part in the Congress of Vienna.
Principles of war
After several years of retirement and literary work, Jomini resumed his post in the Russian army, and in abouthe was made a full general. Until his retirement in he was principally employed in the military education of the Tsarevich Nicholas afterwards Emperor and in the organization of the Russian staff collegewhich was established in and bore its original name of the Nicholas Academy up to the October Revolution of That was his last active service.
Inhe settled in Brusselswhich served as his main place of residence for the next thirty years. Inafter trying without success to bring about a political understanding between France and Russia, Jomini was called to St Petersburg to act as a military adviser to the Tsar during the Crimean War. He returned to Brussels upon the conclusion of peace in Later, he settled at Passy near Paris.
He was principlez employed up to the end of his life in writing treatises, pamphlets and open letters on subjects of military art and history.
One of his last essays dealt with the Austro-Prussian War of and the influence of the breech-loading rifle. He died at Passy only a year before the Franco-Prussian War of — Jomini’s military writings are frequently analyzed: His principlfs prescription was fundamentally simple: As one writer rather partial to Carl von ClausewitzJomini’s great competitor in the field of military theory, put it:. Jomini was no fool, however. His intelligence, facile pen, and actual experience of war made his writings a great deal more credible and useful than so brief a description can imply.
Once he left Napoleon’s service, he maintained himself and his reputation primarily through prose. His writing style—unlike Clausewitz’s—reflected his constant search for an audience. He dealt at length with a number of practical subjects logistics, seapower that Clausewitz had largely ignored. Elements of his discussion his remarks on Great Britain and seapower, for instance, and his sycophantic treatment of Austria’s Archduke Charles are clearly aimed at protecting his political position or expanding his readership.
And, one might add, at minimizing Clausewitz’s, for he clearly perceived the Prussian writer as his chief competitor.
For Jomini, Clausewitz’s death thirty-eight years prior to his own came as a piece of rare good fortune. Jomini took the view that the amount of force deployed should be kept to the minimum in order to lower casualties and that war was not an exact science. Specifically, Jomini stated in his book:. War in its ensemble is NOT a science, but an art.
Strategy, particularly, may indeed be regulated by fixed laws resembling those of the positive sciences, but this is not true of war viewed as a whole.
Among other things, combats may be mentioned as often being quite independent of scientific combinations, and they may become essentially dramatic, personal qualities and inspirations and a thousand other things frequently being the controlling elements.
The prinfiples which agitate the masses that are brought into collision, the warlike qualities of these masses, the energy and talent of their commanders, the spirit, more or less martial, of nations and epochs,—in a word, every thing that can be called the poetry and metaphysics of war,—will have a permanent influence on its results.
While in Russian service, Jomini tried hard to aar a more scientific approach at the general staff academy he helped to found. His ideas, as taught by professor Dennis Hart Mahan permeated the Academy and shaped jojini basic military thinking of its graduates.
The regular army officers who became the general officers for both the Union and the Confederacy in the Civil War began by following Jominian principles.
Grant and William T. Sherman in the Western Theater of the American Civil Warforced them to move beyond his geometric conventions and find other strategic solutions to the problems that confronted them.